# Pattern Recognition

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The goal of pattern recognition is to find common similarities and differences among objects. With proper patterns identified, we can solve seemingly diverse problems by a single algorithm.

Pattern recognition involves:

• identifying similarities or common differences that lead us to shortcuts.
• using identified shortcuts, mapping problem characteristics to possible solution.

Once the patterns are identified, they can be represented through appropriate date, Consider some examples of pattern recognition.

• Everyday example. While driving on roads, switching lanes promptly may cause accidents. So the drivers look for patterns in traffic to decide whether and when to switch lanes.
• Academic example. Pattern recognition is required when categorizing rocks as either igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary.
• Science/ Research example. Scientists and engineers look for patterns in data to derive theories and models, e.g.,
• Scientists discovered that the petals of flowers, flower pistils (seeds arrangements in the centre of flower), pinecones etc. grow in the order of Fibonacci series. Fibonacci series is a series in which every next number is sum of previous two numbers, e.g,. with first 2 numbers 0, 1, the Fibonacci series is : 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21  34 55 …..
• In 1844, Nitrous Oxide gas used by dentists was considered a party drug, since it made people ‘happy’ and relaxed. A friend of American dentist Horace Wells, took too much of the laughing gas during a stage show, hoping to entertain the crowd. During the act, he accidentally cut his leg, but to his surprise, he didn’t feel a thing! Horace Wells noticed the pattern of nitrous-oxide-and-feeling-of-no-pain. Excited by this discovery, Horace Wells patented the use of Nitrous Oxide as the most primitive anaesthetic.

PATTERN RECOGNITION Pattern recognition refers to observing or looking for similarities or patterns among and within small, decomposed problems; the identified patterns help solve more complex problems more efficiently.